José Manuel Sobral
José Manuel Sobral was born in Viseu, Portugal, in 1952, and came to Lisbon for studying first Law and then History at the University, where he graduated in 1976. Before graduation he did field research on projects in the area of Linguistics, such as "The Essential Lexicology of the Portuguese" (1971-1974) and the "Linguistic and Ethnographic Atlas of Portugal and Galiza" (1975-1977), at the Center of Linguistics of the University of Lisbon. This work implicated travelling around the country, meeting and interviewing peasants and individuals of other rural social classes, and it was one of the main sources for his interest in Anthropology.
He was an Assistant Professor of History at the University of Lisbon (1977-1984), where he taught European Medieval History and Portuguese Contemporary History. In 1984 he was recruited by the Instituto de Ciências Sociais where he is now a Research Fellow.
He passed his PhD in Social Anthropology in 1993 (at ISCTE), with a thesis who combines the study of a rural parish in the present with the detailed historical reconstitution, based on national and local sources, of several structural aspects of its social configuration. The aspects contemplated where family and kinship, the class structure, social conflict, social memory, religion and political power. He also searched to connect the local social sphere to the national one and produced a personal theoretical reflexion on the practice of Anthropology.
Although remaining interested on the study of social structures and linked to the rural society mainly through his studies on heritage, José Manuel Sobral moved on to research on nationalism, ethnicity and racism. He has been working on several subjects in these fields, such as theories of nationalism, Portuguese national identity in a comparative perspective, definitions of Portuguese ethnicity, the national identity of black immigrants from the former Portuguese colonies, racism and discrimination towards Roma citizens and immigrants. He also linked his more recent interest in the study of food with his investment on nationalism doing research on the connections between cooking and (Portuguese) national identity in a comparative perspective.
Recently he has also been a member of a research team which studied the Spanish Flu in Portugal and is beginning a collective work on gender inequalities.
Actually he is finishing work on two books, Nationalism and National Identity in Portugal and Histories of the Portuguese Ethnographical Imagination. He is also the co-editor (with Maria Luísa Pedroso de Lima, Maria Paula Castro and Paulo Silveira e Sousa) of the forthcoming books The Forgotten Epidemic: Comparative Views on the Spanish Flu and National Identity, Inclusion and Social Exclusion (with Jorge Vala). He is also working on the publication in book of a research on discrimination and racism in which he participated, under the coordination of sociologist Manuel Carlos Silva.
Until now José Manuel Sobral has supervised 18 Master's thesis in Anthropology and Sociology and was the co-supervisor of 2 PhD theses (in Human Geography and African History). He is the supervisor, or co-supervisor, of 4 Master's theses and 8 PhD dissertations in Anthropology, Sociology and History, at the ICS, ISCTE (Lisbon), the University of Évora, the University of Porto and at the Goldsmiths, University of London. He has taught in postgraduate courses at the ICS, University of Évora, University of Minho, and universities in Brazil and Spain.
From December 2001 to September 2006 he was the President of APA (the Portuguese Anthropological Association). He is now a member of the Consultative Council of the WCAA (World Council of Anthropological Associations). He was also a member for a decade (1990-2000) of the Direction of a Portuguese union of researchers and university professors (SNESup).
He is a member of ASEN (Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism), AAA (American Anthropological Association) and EASA (the European Association of Social Anthropologists).
Up to the present José Manuel Sobral published a book based on his PhD thesis, Trajectos. O Presente e o Passado na Vida de uma Freguesia da Beira (Lisboa, Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, 1999) and has published articles in journal or chapters of books mainly in Portugal but also in the following countries: USA, UK, Spain and Brazil.
Among the most recent (since 2000) are:
Family, Power and Property: Ascendancy and Decline of a Rural Elite, in João Pina Cabral and Antónia Pedroso de Lima (eds.), Elites: Choice, Leadership and Sucession, London, Berg, 2000, pp. 149-163.
La Formación de la Identidad Nacional Portuguesa como Proceso Histórico, in Historia y Política, Madrid, nº 7, 2002/1, pp. 55-81.
A Etnografia de Aquilino Ribeiro, Revista Antropológicas, nº 6, Dezembro 2002, Edições Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto, pp. 7-41.
A Formação das Nações e o Nacionalismo: os Paradigmas Explicativos e o Caso Português, in Análise Social, nº165, vol. XXXVII, Inverno de 2003, 1093-1126.
O Norte e o Sul, a Raça, a Nação - Representações da Identidade nacional portuguesa, séculos XIX-XX, in Análise Social, nº 171, Verão 2004, pp. 255-284.
Memoria Social, Identidad, Poder y Conflicto, Revista de Antropología Social, año 2004, n.º 13, pp. 133-155. (Madrid, Universidad Complutense).
O Genuíno, o Espúrio e a Identidade Local: um Estudo de Caso das Políticas de Património em Meio Rural, Etnográfica, vol. VIII (2), 2004, pp. 243-271.
Desencontros das memórias - breve comentário ao encontro "O descobrimento do Brasil, quinhentos anos depois: memória social e representações de portugueses e brasileiros, in Celso Pereira de Sá e Paula Castro (eds.), Memórias do Descobrimento do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Editora Museu da República, 2005, pp. 165-170.
Memória e Identidade Nacional. In Manuel Carlos Silva (Ed.), Nação e Estado: entre o local e o global. Porto, Edições Afrontamento, 2006, pp. 27-49.
Pierre Bourdieu e o Estudo da Identidade Nacional. In José Madureira Pinto e Virgílio Borges Pereira (Orgs.), Pierre Bourdieu, a Teoria da Prática e a Construção da Sociologia em Portugal. Porto: Edições Afrontamento, 2007, pp. 225-246.
O Outro aqui tão próximo: Jorge Dias e a Redescoberta de Portugal pela Antropologia Portuguesa (anos 70-80), in Revista de História das Ideias, Instituto de História e Teoria das Ideias, Universidade de Coimbra (2007), vol. 28, pp. 139-187.
Cidadania, Nacionalidade, Imigração: um breve historial das suas inter-relações com referência ao caso português, in Isabel Estrada (coord.), Cidadania no Pensamento Político Contemporâneo, Editorial Principia, 2008, pp. 137-163.
Race and Space in Interpretations of Portugal: the North-South Divison and Representations of National Identity in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. In Shawn Parkhurst and Sharon Roseman (Eds.), Recasting Culture and Space in Iberian Contexts, Albany, SUNY Press (State University of New York Press), 2008, pp. 205-224.
Nacionalismo, Culinária e Classe: a Cozinha Portuguesa da Obscuridade à Consagração (séculos XIX-XX), in Ruris, Revista do Centro de Estudos Rurais, IFCH-Unicamp, Campinas, Brasil (April 2008).
Cozinha, Nacionalismo e Cosmopolitismo em Portugal, chapter of a collective book authored by researchers of the ICS, org. by Karin Wall, Sofia Aboim Inglês, Filipe Carreira da Silva and Manuel Villaverde Cabral (to be published until the end of 2008)
Recently concluded or in course projects
"Do racismo e da xenofobia ao multiculturalismo. Um estudo das minorias de origem africana e de etnia cigana no distrito de Braga." Project financed by FCT (Projecto POCTI/SOC 103/96/2001), first coordinator Manuel Carlos Silva, University of Minho, second coordinator José Manuel Sobral. Final Report presented to FCT in 2006.
Coordination, with Jorge Vala (ICS), of the "National Identity" Module in Portugal (ISSP - International Social Survey Programme National Identity Module, 2003-2004)", developed as part of the program "Atitudes Sociais dos Portugueses" at the ICS. The Project was concluded in 2007.
"Gripe Pneumónica em Portugal: Gestão de Risco e Saúde Pública no Portugal da Primeira República" (The Spanish Flu in Portugal: Risk management and public health during the 1st Republic), CIIS-ISCTE. Project financed by FCT (POCTI/HCT/60718/2004) and coordinated by Maria Luísa Lima. Member of the research team with Paula Castro and Paulo Silveira e Sousa. Final report presented to FCT November 2007.
"Os trabalhadores dos centros comerciais na Área Metropolitana do Porto" (The workers of shopping centers in the Oporto Metropolitan Área), University of Porto, coordinated by Sofia Cruz, financed by FCT (POCI/SOC/58215/2004). Project concluded in May 2008.
"A construção da identidade nacional portuguesa e o nacionalismo numa perspectiva comparada" (Nationalism and National Identity: The Portuguese case), financed by ICS (in course).
"A Pátria à Distância? A identidade nacional dos imigrantes oriundos dos PALOP's em Portugal" (Long-Distance Fatherland: National Identifications among Portuguese-Speaking African Migrants in Portugal), financed by ICS (in course).
"Património, Identidade, Globalização e Conflito - a problemática das gravuras paleolíticas do vale do Côa Revisitada" (Heritage, Identity, Globalization and Conflict: the Controversy of the Paleolithic Engravings of the Côa Valley Revisited), part of na international programme coordinated by José Machado Pais envolving the collaboration of researchers from ICS, CES-Coimbra and the Federal University of Ceará, Brazil, and supported by the convenium Grices/Capes.
"Desigualdades de género no trabalho e na vida privada: das leis às práticas sociais" (Gender (In)equalities in Work and Private Life: from the Norms to Social Practice), project coordinated by Manuel Carlos Silva and financed by FCT (PTDC/SDE/72257/2006) - Member of the research team.
|Em busca do tempo perdido? Algumas reflexões sobre as relações entre alimentação, identidade, nostalgia e turismo||Património e Turismo, IV Encontro Regional de Técnicos de Turismo||09/11/2018|
|Xenophobia, Racism, and Attachment to Homeland in the Experience of Santomean Migrants in Portugal||15th EASA Biennial Conference “Staying, Moving, Settling”||14/08/2018|
|História e ciências sociais: convergências e distanciamentos||História e outras Ciências Sociais||28/06/2018|
|Memória, identidade e nostalgia no revivalismo alimentar contemporâneo||II Encontros de Estudos Superiores em Gastronomia||22/05/2018|
|O nacionalismo e os novos conflitos internacionais||A nova desordem internacional, os refugiados e a luta pela paz||02/04/2018|
|Camões e o nacionalismo português||Camões e o nacionalismo português||24/02/2018|
|Migrações, memória, nostalgia, nacionalismo - experiências da diáspora são-tomense em Portugal||Seminário GI - Identidades, Culturas, Vulnerabilidades (Identities, Cultures, Vulnerabilities)||26/01/2018|
|Bacalhau, cultura popular e identidade nacional||V Seminário Desafios do Mar Português, O Bacalhau: História e Futuro||22/10/2016|
|Alimentação como espelho da sociedade||Congresso da Associação Portuguesa de Antropologia de Coimbra||02/06/2016|
|Long-Distance Nationalism, Boundaries and the Experience of Racism among Santomean Migrants in Portugal||26th ASEN Conference, Nationalism, Migration and Population Change||19/04/2016|
|Mobile lives, vernacular tastes: the food culture of Portuguese lorry drivers||Conlab 2015 Congresso Luso Afro Brasileiro||01/01/2015|
|Empresários e Empresas: a Condição Empresarial e a Mão Invisível do Social||Iº Congresso Português de Sociologia Económica||01/01/1998|
|As Condições Sociais da Empresarialidade em Portugal||III Congresso Luso-Afro-Brasileiro de Ciências Sociais||01/01/1994|