Children and the Internet: Uses and representations, family and school

Children and the Internet: Uses and representations, family and school

Coordinated by Ana Nunes de Almeida, the project "Children and the Internet: uses and representations, the family and the school" is a study developed by the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon and sponsored by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.

Giving children a voice, its objective is to know the uses they do and the representations they build on the internet, in two fundamental contexts of their daily lives: the family and the school.

This project is inspired by research carried out since 2001 by teams of researchers from the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya on the information society, coordinated by Manuel Castells. In an attempt to achieve cumulativeness, it is intended to continue certain thematic lines developed, which will allow the fruitful comparison of methodologies and results between countries, but also to enrich them theoretically with the introduction of proposals brought to sociology by the "new paradigm of childhood ". Considering the child as a competent actor, producer and active interpreter of his / her daily life, we seeks (by giving him / her voice) to describe, to characterize and to interpret the uses that children make and the representations that they build on the internet, from two educational scenarios between which children circulate: the family and the school.

The project is developed in three phases. In the first one (2008), an extensive approach was deployed through a questionnaire applied to a sample of students from elementary school (1st, 2nd and 3rd cycles), attending public and private schools in the Continent. In the second (2009-2010) a comprehensive approach was applied through in-depth interviews with a qualitative sample of children (differentiated by age, family origins, gender and ethnicity) as well as their teachers and parents. Taking into account the development and progress of the project in the previous phases, it was decided to design a third and new phase (2011-2012) in which ethnographic work was carried out to observe the use of the Internet by children, combined with group discussions.

The project can inaugurate a promising line of research in Portugal that interweaves (and renews) the contributions of studies on the information society and studies on childhood. The wide dissemination of the results can contribute to a better public knowledge about the uses of the Internet in Portugal, its expansion and appropriation by children in a family and school context.

 

Estatuto: 
Proponent entity
Financed: 
Yes
Entidades: 
Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian
Keywords: 

Childhood, Computers, Games, Social networks

Coordinated by Ana Nunes de Almeida, the project "Children and the Internet: uses and representations, the family and the school" is a study developed by the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon and sponsored by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.

Giving children a voice, its objective is to know the uses they do and the representations they build on the internet, in two fundamental contexts of their daily lives: the family and the school.

This project is inspired by research carried out since 2001 by teams of researchers from the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya on the information society, coordinated by Manuel Castells. In an attempt to achieve cumulativeness, it is intended to continue certain thematic lines developed, which will allow the fruitful comparison of methodologies and results between countries, but also to enrich them theoretically with the introduction of proposals brought to sociology by the "new paradigm of childhood ". Considering the child as a competent actor, producer and active interpreter of his / her daily life, we seeks (by giving him / her voice) to describe, to characterize and to interpret the uses that children make and the representations that they build on the internet, from two educational scenarios between which children circulate: the family and the school.

The project is developed in three phases. In the first one (2008), an extensive approach was deployed through a questionnaire applied to a sample of students from elementary school (1st, 2nd and 3rd cycles), attending public and private schools in the Continent. In the second (2009-2010) a comprehensive approach was applied through in-depth interviews with a qualitative sample of children (differentiated by age, family origins, gender and ethnicity) as well as their teachers and parents. Taking into account the development and progress of the project in the previous phases, it was decided to design a third and new phase (2011-2012) in which ethnographic work was carried out to observe the use of the Internet by children, combined with group discussions.

The project can inaugurate a promising line of research in Portugal that interweaves (and renews) the contributions of studies on the information society and studies on childhood. The wide dissemination of the results can contribute to a better public knowledge about the uses of the Internet in Portugal, its expansion and appropriation by children in a family and school context.

 

Objectivos: 
Considerando as crianças actores competentes, produtoras e intérpretes activas do seu quotidiano, pretende-se (dando-lhes voz) conhecer os usos que fazem e as representações que constroem sobre a internet, em dois cenários pelos quais circulam - a família e a escola - e onde emergem relações educativas que se sobrepõem ou contradizem, concorrem entre si. <p>Mais detalhadamente, são objectivos do projecto:</p><p>-  captar os modos de transmissão dos saberes que as crianças (indivíduos entre os 0-14 anos) detêm sobre o computador e a internet  - momentos, fontes, lugares, protagonistas e actores de aprendizagem;</p><p>- descrever os contextos do quotidiano em que ocorre o uso de um equipamento como o computador e o acesso que ele proporciona à internet  - espaços, tempos, ritmos e condições de utilização (a solo, em grupo, em rede, etc), combinações com o uso de outras tecnologias;</p><p>- compreender os objectivos da sua utilização: a internet como objecto de saber, instrumento de trabalho (para a escola, para a família), elemento de construção de uma cultura infantil e de pares.</p>
State of the art: 
Em contraposi&ccedil;&atilde;o expl&iacute;cita ao paradigma biol&oacute;gico e psicol&oacute;gico que a tomam como um dado natural (Prout: 2005), a nova sociologia da inf&acirc;ncia encara-a como uma constru&ccedil;&atilde;o social, fruto do tempo e do espa&ccedil;o. &quot;Childhood is to be understood as a social construct&quot; (Jenks: 1992). Postular a natureza hist&oacute;rica e cultural da inf&acirc;ncia implica, tamb&eacute;m, a considera&ccedil;&atilde;o da heterogeneidade interna das experi&ecirc;ncias infantis. Vari&aacute;veis como o sexo, a classe social, a etnia da crian&ccedil;a, ou mesmo o seu grupo et&aacute;rio de perten&ccedil;a, introduzem relevo e diferen&ccedil;a num cen&aacute;rio desigual.&nbsp; Outro princ&iacute;pio fundador tem a ver com a defesa de que as rela&ccedil;&otilde;es sociais entre as crian&ccedil;as merecem ser estudadas por direito pr&oacute;prio, a partir do seu campo, independentemente da perspectiva dos adultos.&nbsp; Ligada &agrave; anterior, surge a ideia de que a crian&ccedil;a deve ser encarada &quot;as a being in the present&quot; e n&atilde;o apenas como &quot;adult in the making&quot; (Harden: 2000), &quot;projecto de ser&quot; (Soares: 1998), &quot;momento precursor&quot; (Sirota: 1998).&nbsp; Num &quot;tempo de incertezas&quot; em que as formas de vida adulta se flexibilizaram, tanto na fam&iacute;lia incerta como no mercado dos empregos competitivos e prec&aacute;rios do mundo globalizado, &eacute; a pr&oacute;pria no&ccedil;&atilde;o de adulto-padr&atilde;o, como entidade acabada, que carece de cr&iacute;tica (Lee: 2005). <p>Considerar que as crian&ccedil;as t&ecirc;m uma vis&atilde;o consistente do mundo que as rodeia imp&otilde;e a prioridade metodol&oacute;gica de lhes dar voz (na investiga&ccedil;&atilde;o) e as considerar informadoras cred&iacute;veis sobre as suas vidas e os significados que lhes atribuem. S&atilde;o sujeitos competentes de produ&ccedil;&atilde;o de vida social, &quot;actores da sua socializa&ccedil;&atilde;o&quot;, &quot;actores de corpo inteiro&quot;.</p><p>A inova&ccedil;&atilde;o tecnol&oacute;gica e o acesso ao ciber-espa&ccedil;o (na escola, mas sobretudo em casa) parecem justamente encontrar um terreno f&eacute;rtil de expans&atilde;o entre as crian&ccedil;as, v&ecirc;m perturbar a clareza da distin&ccedil;&atilde;o tradicional entre espa&ccedil;o privado/protector e espa&ccedil;o p&uacute;blico/predador (Valentine et. al.: 2004), bem como problematizar a rela&ccedil;&atilde;o educativa tradicional entre a crian&ccedil;a (que parece exibir poderosas formas de literacia sobre os media) e o adulto (pai, professor, que parece n&atilde;o as dominar com semelhante mestria) (Renaut: 2002). </p><p>Ora as crian&ccedil;as/adolescentes e a sua rela&ccedil;&atilde;o com a internet t&ecirc;m constitu&iacute;do tema de particular interesse para estudos efectuados nos &uacute;ltimos anos (ex: Normand e Souza 2000; Lenhart et al 2001; Bevort e Br&eacute;da, 2001; Livingstone, 2005 e 2006; Clark, 2001, Sigal&eacute;s et. al., 2007; Pi&eacute;tte et. al, 2007), nomeadamente no &acirc;mbito da articula&ccedil;&atilde;o entre o uso da internet e a vida familiar e quotidiana, as sociabilidades infanto-juvenis e os processos de aprendizagem. Em Portugal, esta quest&atilde;o continua escassamente estudada:&nbsp; identificou-se um estudo realizado em 2001 (Abrantes, 2002), anos antes do processo de massifica&ccedil;&atilde;o das TIC entretanto ocorrido; outro de &acirc;mbito muito circunscrito (Reia-Baptista et. al. 2006). A prop&oacute;sito, D. Buckingham (2006) desmonta vis&otilde;es &quot;essencialistas&quot;, &quot;deterministas&quot; e &quot;unidimensionais&quot; sobre o papel destas novas tecnologias - ora como causadoras da &quot;morte da inf&acirc;ncia&quot;, ora como criadoras de uma jovem &quot;gera&ccedil;&atilde;o tecnol&oacute;gica&quot;. Ambas negligenciam, afinal, os contextos sociais em que as novas tecnologias s&atilde;o usadas, esquecem diferen&ccedil;as que contam (rapazes/raparigas, ricos/pobres).&nbsp; O conhecimento da sociedade portuguesa nesta mat&eacute;ria e a compara&ccedil;&atilde;o com os seus parceiros internacionais aconselham vivamente a replica&ccedil;&atilde;o em Portugal de estudos similares.</p><p>Por &uacute;ltimo, e na esteira de Lahire, &eacute; importante encarar a crian&ccedil;a como actor plural, produto de uma socializa&ccedil;&atilde;o em contextos sociais m&uacute;ltiplos, atrav&eacute;s da qual incorpora uma multiplicidade mais ou menos dur&aacute;vel e intensa de esquemas de ac&ccedil;&atilde;o que se organizam em tantos report&oacute;rios quanto os contextos sociais que aprende a distinguir atrav&eacute;s das suas experi&ecirc;ncias anteriores. &Eacute; na complexidade e &quot;pluralidade disposicional&quot; deste actor que se encontra o caminho para a renova&ccedil;&atilde;o te&oacute;rica (Lahire: 2001).&nbsp; O desafio torna-se, ent&atilde;o, o de focar o olhar nos mesmos indiv&iacute;duos (as crian&ccedil;as) que atravessam uma pluralidade de cenas e contextos diferentes, entre a escola e a fam&iacute;lia. A pretexto, no caso deste projecto, dos usos e representa&ccedil;&otilde;es da internet.</p><p>Abrantes, J. C. (2002). Os jovens e a internet: Representa&ccedil;&atilde;o, utiliza&ccedil;&atilde;o, apropria&ccedil;&atilde;o (Relat&oacute;rio final). Lisboa: Centro de Investiga&ccedil;&atilde;o Media e Jornalismo.</p><p>Bevort, &Eacute;. e Br&eacute;da, I. (2001). Les jeunes et l' Internet - Repr&eacute;sentations, usages et appropriations. Centre de Liaison de l'enseignement et des moyens d'information.</p><p>Buckingham, D. (2006). After the death of childhood. Growing up in the age of the electronic media. Cambridge : Polity Press.</p><p>Clark, W. (2001), &laquo; L'utilisation d'Internet chez les enfants et les adolescents &raquo;, Statistique Canada, (n. 11-008), pp. 6-10.</p><p>Harden, J. et al. (2000). &quot;Cant' talk, won't talk?: methodological issues in researching children&quot;. Sociological Research Online, vol 5 (2). http://www.socresonline.org.uk/5/2/harden.html</p><p>Jenks, C. (1992). &quot;Introduction: constituting the child&quot; in C. Jenks (ed.). The sociology of childhood - essential readings. Londres: Gregg Revivals, pp.9-27.</p><p>Lahire, B. (2001). L' homme pluriel - les ressorts de l' action. Paris: Nathan.</p><p>Lee, N. (2005). Childhood and society. Growing up in an age of uncertainty. Berkshire: Open University Press.</p><p>Lenhart, A. et al (2001 ). The Internet and Education: Findings of the Pew Internet &amp; American Life Project, http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Schools_Report.pdf .</p><p>Livingstone, S. (2006). &laquo; Drawing conclusions from new media research: Reflections and puzzles regarding children's experience of the Internet &raquo;, The Information Society, n&ordm; 22, pp. 219-230.</p><p>Livingstone, S., Bober, M., and Helsper, E. (2005) Internet literacy among children and young people: findings from the UK Children Go Online project. Project Report. London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK. </p><p>Normand, S. e Souza, M. B. (2000) &laquo; Internet &agrave; l'&eacute;cole &raquo;, in Georges-Louis Baron, &Eacute;ric Bruillard, Jean-Fran&ccedil;ois L&eacute;vy (eds.). Les technologies dans la classe, de l'innovation &agrave; l'int&eacute;gration, Paris, INRP-EPI, pp. 185-195.</p><p>Pi&eacute;tte, J., Pons, C-M. e Giroux, L. (2007). Les jeunes et internet: 2006 (appropriation des nouvelles technologies) - Rapport final de l'enqu&ecirc;te men&eacute;e au Qu&eacute;bec, Minist&egrave;re de la Culture et des Communications, Gouvernement du Qu&eacute;bec, http://www.infobourg.com/data/fichiers/156/Les%20Jeunes%20et%20Internet%202006.pdf .</p><p>Prout, A. (2005). The future of childhood. London, N. York: Routledge Falmer.</p><p>Reia-Baptista, V., Baltazar, N. e Mendes, S. (2006), Apropria&ccedil;&otilde;es dos novos media jovens europeus dos 12 aos 18 (Relat&oacute;rio s&iacute;ntese da equipa Portuguesa do Projecto MediaPPro), http://www.ese.ualg.pt/ciccom/Mediappro_Portugal.pdf .</p><p>Renaut, A. (2002). La lib&eacute;ration des enfants. Contribution philosophique &agrave; une histoire e l' enfance. Paris: Calmann-L&eacute;vy.</p><p>Sigal&eacute;s, Carles et al (2007) L'escola a la Societat xarxa: Internet a l'educaci&oacute; prim&agrave;ria i secund&agrave;ria, Informe final de recerca, IN3-UOC.</p><p>Sirota, R. (1998). &quot;L' &eacute;mergence d'une sociologie de l'enfance: evolution de l' objet, &eacute;volution du regard&quot;. &Eacute;ducation et Soci&eacute;t&eacute;. (2), pp. 9-33.</p><p>Soares, N. (1998). Outras inf&acirc;ncias...a situa&ccedil;&atilde;o social das crian&ccedil;as atendidas numa Comiss&atilde;o de Protec&ccedil;&atilde;o de Menores (provas de aptid&atilde;o pedag&oacute;gica e capacidade cient&iacute;fica). Braga: Instituto de Estudos da Crian&ccedil;a/Universidade do Minho.</p><p>Valentine, G, Holloway, S.&nbsp; (2004). &quot;Transforming cyberspace. Children's interventions in the new public sphere&quot; in S. Holloway e G. Valentine (eds.). Children's geographies - playing, living, learning. London: Routledge, pp.156-173.</p>
Parceria: 
Unintegrated
Nuno de Almeida Alves
Carles Sigalés
Josep M. Mominó
Tiago Carvalho
Diana Carvalho
Coordenador 
Start Date: 
01/03/2008
End Date: 
31/12/2014
Closed