Reputation and occupational risk management in careers and artistic labour markets

Reputation and occupational risk management in careers and artistic labour markets

Over the last few years, the deep changes produced in the "art worlds" (Becker, 1982) - also called "creativity worlds" (Caves, 2002; Bryant e Throsby, 2006) -have raised a great deal of discussion as a result of their implications in terms of the individual career paths of the artists, their collective destinations and their different forms of integration in the artistic labour markets and organisations.

The precariousness of the artistic careers, the originality of the artists in the management of the occupational risk, leaping from one project to the next, are not an exclusive of the art world but generate strong specificities within these labour universes. There are also significant signs of initial investment in the specific training of the artists, the valorisation of the "chance to develop a creative and self-training activity", "not always well remunerated but filled with glamour", dimensions that prove determinant to the resistance to the definitive abandonment the profession.

In concrete, I ask: how does this type of work originate specific professional paths? What are its consequences to the collective organisation of work and to the dynamic of the individual career paths? How do these trajectories inscribe themselves in the different cultural organisations? How is the reputation of the artists built? What professionalization dynamics and autonomy strategies do they develop? What are the consequences of a greater connection between the training and the artistic professions and of the division of the work inside the groups? What is today's role of the new generations in altering or not the forms of socialisation and the types of work in the art worlds?

These are the main questions I intend to answer.

To do so, I will take into consideration the various researches that analyse the professional, identity and organisational restructurings experienced in the artistic labour universes:

  • - From the theatre (Menger, 1997; Borges, 2007; Throsby, 2010) to the specificity of the French intermittent du spectacle (Pilmis, 2007);
  • - Through the worlds of the "new" music, rap and techno (Jouvenet, 2007); to the baroque music orchestras (François, 2000), to the paths of the architects (Blau, 1988; Champy, 1998; Cabral e Borges, 2006), jazz musicians (Coulangeon, 1999; Buscatto, 2007), singers (Coulangeon, 2004) and dancers (Rannou e Roharik, 2006).
  • - More recently, the analysis of the different union strategies of the artists (Grégoire, 2009), between the two world wars; of the professionals committed against the war (Roussel, 2009); of the new paths of the artistic practices and of the public cultural policies (Santos e Pais, 2010).

In parallel, the studies on the artists and artistic labour deserve special attention for the comparison between these professional universes among themselves (Throsby, 2010; Alper e Wassal, 2002) and in their relationship with the productive worlds in general (Ross, 2008).

Lastly, with this research, I also promote a discussion on the different scales of analysis - micro and macro - that, used in articulation, allow the understanding of the operation of the arts worlds and that also allow to extract from them the best teachings to study other labour markets, namely science and medicine, fishing, handcrafts, banking, among others (Maneschy et al., 2010).

Estatuto: 
Proponent entity
Financed: 
No
Keywords: 

Profession, Organization, Reputation, Market

Over the last few years, the deep changes produced in the "art worlds" (Becker, 1982) - also called "creativity worlds" (Caves, 2002; Bryant e Throsby, 2006) -have raised a great deal of discussion as a result of their implications in terms of the individual career paths of the artists, their collective destinations and their different forms of integration in the artistic labour markets and organisations.

The precariousness of the artistic careers, the originality of the artists in the management of the occupational risk, leaping from one project to the next, are not an exclusive of the art world but generate strong specificities within these labour universes. There are also significant signs of initial investment in the specific training of the artists, the valorisation of the "chance to develop a creative and self-training activity", "not always well remunerated but filled with glamour", dimensions that prove determinant to the resistance to the definitive abandonment the profession.

In concrete, I ask: how does this type of work originate specific professional paths? What are its consequences to the collective organisation of work and to the dynamic of the individual career paths? How do these trajectories inscribe themselves in the different cultural organisations? How is the reputation of the artists built? What professionalization dynamics and autonomy strategies do they develop? What are the consequences of a greater connection between the training and the artistic professions and of the division of the work inside the groups? What is today's role of the new generations in altering or not the forms of socialisation and the types of work in the art worlds?

These are the main questions I intend to answer.

To do so, I will take into consideration the various researches that analyse the professional, identity and organisational restructurings experienced in the artistic labour universes:

  • - From the theatre (Menger, 1997; Borges, 2007; Throsby, 2010) to the specificity of the French intermittent du spectacle (Pilmis, 2007);
  • - Through the worlds of the "new" music, rap and techno (Jouvenet, 2007); to the baroque music orchestras (François, 2000), to the paths of the architects (Blau, 1988; Champy, 1998; Cabral e Borges, 2006), jazz musicians (Coulangeon, 1999; Buscatto, 2007), singers (Coulangeon, 2004) and dancers (Rannou e Roharik, 2006).
  • - More recently, the analysis of the different union strategies of the artists (Grégoire, 2009), between the two world wars; of the professionals committed against the war (Roussel, 2009); of the new paths of the artistic practices and of the public cultural policies (Santos e Pais, 2010).

In parallel, the studies on the artists and artistic labour deserve special attention for the comparison between these professional universes among themselves (Throsby, 2010; Alper e Wassal, 2002) and in their relationship with the productive worlds in general (Ross, 2008).

Lastly, with this research, I also promote a discussion on the different scales of analysis - micro and macro - that, used in articulation, allow the understanding of the operation of the arts worlds and that also allow to extract from them the best teachings to study other labour markets, namely science and medicine, fishing, handcrafts, banking, among others (Maneschy et al., 2010).

Objectivos: 
Assim, pretendo analisar "os indivíduos a trabalharem em conjunto" (Becker [1982], 2005), mostrar quem faz o quê, as suas missões e a segmentação das mesmas, evidenciando o que aproxima e/ou afasta estes mundos estéticos, de produção e de trabalho dos outros mundos produtivos em geral. <p>O desafio da minha proposta, e a principal contribuição que posso dar para a evolução do estado da arte e para o aprofundamento da análise, passa pela articulação dos contributos da sociologia e da economia da arte e da cultura, do trabalho, das profissões, das organizações e dos mercados. O desafio reside, ainda, no cruzamento de metodologias de análise quantitativas e qualitativas e na <em>démarche</em> comparativa que me leva a analisar o contexto nacional e a sua relação com outros contextos internacionais. </p>
Parceria: 
Unintegrated
Coordenador 
Start Date: 
01/01/2010
End Date: 
01/01/2013
Duração: 
36 meses
Closed